Wednesday, June 29, 2011

Deadly Lockheed Martin C130 Hercules

Army and Weapons | Deadly Lockheed Martin C130 Hercules | Lockheed C-130 Hercules military transport plane is a four-engine turboprop, was originally designed and built by Lockheed, now Lockheed Martin. Able to use a runway that is not ready for takeoff and landing, the C-130 was originally designed as troop carriers, medical evacuation, and cargo aircraft. Versatile airframe has been used in a variety of other roles, including as a fighter (AC-130), for air strikes, search and rescue, scientific research support, weather research, air refueling, maritime patrol and air fire. This is the main tactical airlifter for military forces worldwide. More than 40 models and variants of the Hercules serve with more than 60 countries.
During his ministry, Hercules family has participated in many military assistance operations, civilian and humanitarian. Hercules family has the longest continuous production of any military aircraft in history. In 2007, C-130 became the fifth aircraft-after the English Electric Canberra, B-52 Stratofortress, Tupolev Tu-95 and KC-135 Stratotanker to mark 50 years of continuous use with the original primary customer, in this case the United States Air Force States. C-130 is also the only military aircraft to remain in continuous production for 50 years with the original customer, as the C-130J Super Hercules to date.

Design and DevelopmentKorean War, which began in June 1950, shows that the era of World War II transport as the C-119 Flying Boxcars, C-47 Skytrains and C-46 Commandos are inadequate for modern warfare. So on February 2, 1951, the United States Air Force issued a General Operations Requirement (GOR) for a new transport to Boeing, Douglas, Fairchild, Lockheed, Martin, Chase Aircraft, North American, Northrop, and Airlifts Inc. The new transport would have a capacity for 92 passengers, 72 troops or 64 combat troops in the cargo compartment is approximately 41 feet (12 m) long, 9 feet (2.7 m) tall and 10 feet (3.0 m) wide. Unlike transport from passenger planes, it is designed as a combat transport with loading of a road at the rear of the plane. This innovation for military cargo plane was first pioneered in WW II Germany, the Junkers Ju 252 and Ju 253 "Hercules" transport prototype in World War II. Boeing C-97 also has a way out through the door of the clamshell, but can not be used for cargo airdrops.
Also similar to his brother Hercules C-123 with the same wing and layout of road cargo. That plane evolved from Avitruc Chase XCG-20, which was first designed and flown as cargo glider in 1947. back door is not only possible to insert the vehicle into the aircraft (also possible with the front door at -124 C), but also to airdrop or use low altitude extraction for Sheridan tanks or even dropping the "daisy cutter" bombs.

Its main feature is the introduction of the T56 turboprop engine, the first developed specifically for C-130. At that time, the turboprop is a new application of a jet engine exhaust gas that is used to rotate the propeller shafted, which offers a greater range on the speed of the propeller-driven as compared with pure jet, which is faster but wasteful. As happened in the helicopter that era such as the UH-1 Huey, turboshafts generate more power for the aircraft weight than piston engines. Lockheed would then use the same machinery and technology at Lockheed L-188 Electra. That plane is a disappointment as an airplane, but it worked quite well adapted as a patrol aircraft P-3 Orion where speed and superior durability turboprops. 

Lockheed design new cargo planes have a range of 1100 nm (1,300 mi; 2,000 km), takeoff capability from short strips and emergency, and the ability to fly with one engine shut down. Fairchild, North American, Martin and Northrop declined to participate. The remaining five companies filed a total of 10 designs: Lockheed two, Boeing one, Chase three, Douglas three, and one Airlifts Inc.. Closed contest between two Lockheed (preliminary project designation L-206) proposals and four turboprop Douglas design.
Lockheed design team was led by Willis Hawkins, starting with a 130 page proposal for the Lockheed L-206. Hall Hibbard, Lockheed vice president and chief engineer to see the proposal and directed to Kelly Johnson, who did not care for low-speed, aircraft were unarmed, and said, "If you sign That letter, Will you destroy the Lockheed Company." Both Hibbard and Johnson signed the proposal and the company won the contract for the Model 82 on July 2, 1951. The first flight prototype YC-130 took place on August 23, 1954 from the Lockheed plant in Burbank, California. The aircraft, serial number 53-3397, is the second prototype but the first of two that flew. YC-130 piloted by Stanley Beltz and Roy Wimmer at the 61 minute flight at Edwards Air Force Base, Jack Real and Dick Stanton served as flight engineer. 

Kelly Johnson flew chase in the P2V Neptune. After two prototypes completed, production began in Marietta, Georgia, where more than 2,300 C-130 was built until 2009. Early production model, the C-130A, which is supported by the Allison T56-A-9 turboprops with three-blade propeller. Delivery began in December 1956, continued until the introduction of the C-130B model in 1959. Some models A re-designated C-130D after equipped with skis. C-130B had ailerons later with the encouragement of an increase in 3000 psi (21 MPa) versus 2050 psi (14 MPa) with uprated engines and four-bladed propellers that standard until the introduction of the J-model.
C-130A ModelThe first production C-130 designated as A-models, with deliveries in 1956 to the 463d Troop Carrier Wing at Ardmore AFB, Oklahoma and the 314th Troop Carrier Wing at Sewart AFB, Tennessee. Six additional squadrons were assigned to the 322nd Air Division in Europe and the 315th Air Division in the Far East. Additional aircraft modified for electronic intelligence work and assigned to Rhein-Main Air Base, Germany while modified RC-130A was assigned to the division (MATS) Military Air Transport Service for photo mapping. The aircraft is equipped with giant skis designated as C-130D, but basically the model A except for the conversion. Australia became the first American forces to operate non-C130A Hercules with 12 samples sent during the late 1958 to early 1959's. The aircraft was fitted with three-blade propeller AeroProducts diameter of 15 '. 

 Like the C-130A operated by the Tactical Air Command (TAC), the lack of C-130 from the fuel capacity to reach clear and additions added in the form of an external pylon tanks mounted on the end of the wing. A model continued in service through the Vietnam War, where aircraft are assigned to the four squadrons at Naha AB, Okinawa and one at Tachikawa Air Base. Japanese do service Yeoman, including a highly secret operation, special operations missions such as missions BLIND BAT FAC / Flare and mission FACT SHEET leaflets over Laos and North Vietnam. Model A is also given to the South Vietnamese Air Force as part of the program Vietnamisasi at the end of the war, and has three squadrons based at Tan Son Nhut AFB. Last operator in the world is a Honduran Air Force, which was flying one of the five models A Hercs (Fah 558, c / n 3042) as of October 2009.
C-130B ModelC-130B model was developed to complement the model A which has previously been delivered, and incorporated new features, particularly increased fuel capacity in the form of additional tanks that are built into the center wing and AC electrical system. Four-blade Hamilton Standard propellers replaced propeller Aero Product three blades that distinguishes the A-model before. B-models replaced A-models in the 314 and 463 Troop Carrier Wings. During the Vietnam War four squadrons assigned to Carrier Force 463 / Tactical Airlift Wing based at Clark Air Force Base and Mactan Air Force Base in the Philippines is primarily used for tactical airlift operations in South Vietnam. In spring 1969, crews began Commando Vault 463 bombing missions dropping "daisy cutter" M-121 10,000 pounds (4534 kg) bombs to clear "instant LZS" for the helicopter. 

 It would later be used by South Vietnamese troops in an effort to support the last air to the return of communist forces. After the Vietnam War model B and model A 463 troops from the 374th Tactical Airlift Wing moved back to the United States where most were assigned to Air Force Reserve and Air National Guard units. Another important role for model B with the United States Marine Corps, where Hercules ditujuk as GV-1 replaces the C-119. Once C-130D Air Force proved its usefulness in the Antarctic, the U.S. Navy purchased a number of model B equipped with skis that are designated as LC-130.

An electronic reconnaissance variant of the C-130B C-130B set-II. A total of 13 aircraft have been converted and operated under the name SUN VALLEY programs. They operate mainly from Yokota Air Base, Japan. All planes returned to the standard C-130B cargo after their replacement in the reconnaissance role by another aircraft. C-130B-II is distinguished by one of the external wing fuel tank, posing as an antenna receiving signals intelligence. These pods are slightly larger than the standard wing tanks are found in other C-130B. Most features of the plane, sweeping the blade antenna on the plane, as well as an extra antenna cable between the vertical fin and the upper plane was not found in other C-130. Radio call numbers on the tail is regularly changed so that observers can confuse and disguise their true mission.

C-130E modelsModels extended range C-130E began operations in 1962 after being developed as an interim long-distance transport to the Military Air Transport Service. Basically the B-model, the new designation of the installation of 1360 U.S. gal (5150 L) Sargent Fletcher external fuel tanks under each wing and the central part of the engine more powerful Allison T56-A-7A turboprops. Increase the hydraulic pressure to the ailerons is reduced back to 2050 psi as a consequence of the weight of the external tank in the center of a wingspan. E model also featured structural improvements, avionics upgrades and a higher gross weight. Australia took delivery of 12 C130E Hercules during 1966-1967 to supplement the 12 C-130A model is already in service with the RAAF.

C-130F / KC-130F / C-130g modelKC-130 tankers, originally C-130F purchased for the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) in 1958 (under the designation GV-1) equipped with a 3600 U.S. gal (13,626 l) stainless steel fuel tanks in the cargo compartment. two hose with a drogue pods for refueling in the air with each transfer up to 300 U.S. gal per minute (19 l per second) to two aircraft simultaneously, allowing for fast cycle time of multi-receiver aircraft formations, (typical of four-ship formation tanker aircraft in less than 30 minutes). C-130g The U.S. Navy has increased the power structure which enables operation with higher gross weight. C-130H ModelC-130H model has got updated Allison T56-engine A-15 turboprops, a redesigned outer wing, updated avionics and other minor improvements. Later H models further, improved endurance aircraft, the wing was upgraded on many models of H before.

H model is still widely used by the U.S. Air Force (USAF) and many foreign air forces. Initial shipments began in 1964 (to the RNZAF), remaining production until 1996. An improved C-130H was introduced in 1974, with Australia the purchase of 12 types in 1978 to replace the original 12 C-130A model which first entered RAAF service in 1958. United States Coast Guard HC-hire 130H to remotely search and rescue, drug operations, illegal immigrants patrol, regional security and logistics. C-130H models manufactured from 1992 until 1996 are designated as C-130H3 by the USAF. H3 indicating the third variation in design for series H. Improvements include ring laser gyros for Inu, GPS receiver, a partial glass cockpit (ADI and HSI instruments), an APN-241 radar better color, night vision compatible lighting instruments, and radar integrated with missile warning system. Upgrade electrical systems including generator control unit (GCU) and Bus Switching unit (BSU) to provide stable power to the more sensitive upgraded components.

C-130K modelEquivalent model for export to the UK are C-130K, known as the Royal Air Force (RAF) as the Hercules C.1. C-130H-30 (Hercules C.3 in RAF service) is the wide version of the original Hercules, achieved by including 100 in (2.54 m) into the rear cockpit and 80 in (2.03 m) on the back of the plane. one C-130K was purchased by the Met Office for use by companies Meteorological Research Flight, where he was classified as Hercules W.2. This aircraft has been heavily modified (with the most prominent feature to probe the red and white striped long-atmosphere in the nose and moving from a weather radar pod on the plane to the front). This aircraft, named Snoopy, was withdrawn in 2001 and later modified by Marshall of Cambridge Aerospace as a flight-test bed for the A400M turbine engines, the TP400. C-130K used by the RAF Falcons parachute to test. Three C-130K (Hercules C Mk.1P) improved and sold to the Austrian Air Force in 2002.

Model variants and otherMC-130E Combat Talon was developed for the USAF during the Vietnam War to support special operations missions throughout Southeast Asia, and gave birth to a family of special mission aircraft. 37 initial models currently in operation with the United States Special Operations Command, is scheduled to be replaced with a new version of MC-130J production. EC-130 and EC-130H Compass Call is also the version used for Special Operations.

HC-130P / N is a variant of the SAR long-distance used by the USAF (to include Air Force Reserve Command and Air National Guard) who developed the HC-130P before. Equipped for deep deployment of Pararescuemen (PJs), rescue equipment, air refueling and combat helicopters, HC-130 is usually used as command aircraft for combat SAR missions. Early versions are equipped with a recovery system surface-to-air Fulton, designed to attract someone from the ground using a fine wire from a helium balloon. John Wayne movie The Green Berets using the feature. Fulton system is then removed during the air refueling helicopters proved safer and more flexible. The Perfect Storm movie depict real life mission involving SAR air refueling of the New York Air National Guard HH-60G to New York Air National Guard HC 130P.

C-130R and C-130T are U.S. Navy and USMC model, both equipped with external fuel tanks under the wings. USN C-130T is similar, but has the additional avionics repair. In both models, the aircraft is equipped with Allison T56-A-16 engine. USMC version called the KC-130R or KC-130T when equipped with underwing refueling pods and pylons and complete the night vision system compatible.

RC-130 is a reconnaissance version. A single example is used by the Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force, aircraft that had originally been sold to former Iranian royal Air Force. Lockheed L-100 (L-382) is a civilian variant, equivalent to a C-130E model without military equipment. L-100 also has 2 stretched versions.C-130J Super Herculesin the 1970s, Lockheed proposed the C-130 variant with turbofan engines rather than turboprops, but liked the performance of the U.S. Air Force plane took off from there. In the 1980s, C-130 is intended to be replaced by the Advanced Medium STOL Transport project. The project was canceled and the C-130 remains in production.

In the 1990s, the C-130J Super Hercules upgraded developed by Lockheed (later Lockheed Martin). This model is the latest version and the only model in production. External similar to the classic Hercules in general appearance, the J has a new turboprop engine, propeller six-bladed, digital avionics, and other new systems.

General characteristics
  • Crew: 5 (two pilots, navigator, flight engineer and loadmaster)
  • Capacity:
    • 92 passengers or
    • 64 airborne troops or
    • 74 litter patients with 2 medical personnel or
    • 6 pallets or
    • 2–3 HMMWVs or
    • 2 M113 armored personnel carrier
  • Payload: 45,000 lb (20,000 kg)
  • Length: 97 ft 9 in (29.8 m)
  • Wingspan: 132 ft 7 in (40.4 m)
  • Height: 38 ft 3 in (11.6 m)
  • Wing area: 1,745 ft² (162.1 m²)
  • Empty weight: 75,800 lb (34,400 kg)
  • Useful load: 72,000 lb (33,000 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 155,000 lb (70,300 kg)
  • Powerplant: 4× Allison T56-A-15 Turboprop, 4,590 shp (3,430 kW) each
  • Maximum speed: 320 knots (366 mph, 592 km/h) at 20,000 ft (6,060 m)
  • Cruise speed: 292 kn (336 mph, 540 km/h)
  • Range: 2,050 nmi (2,360 mi, 3,800 km)
  • Service ceiling: 33,000 ft (10,060 m) empty; 23,000 ft (7,077 m) with 42,000 pounds (19,090 kilograms) payload ()
  • Rate of climb: 1,830 ft/min (9.3 m/s)
  • Takeoff distance: 3,586 ft (1,093 m) at 155,000 lb (70,300 kg) max gross weight; 1,400 ft (427 m) at 80,000 lb (36,300 kg) gross weight