Monday, October 31, 2011

Deadly HMS Ark Royal

Army and Weapons | Deadly HMS Ark Royal | Built by Cammell Laird, and recorded on September 16, 1935 Ark Royal was launched on April 13, 1937. She was commissioned on November 16, 1938 as the second HMS Ark Royal. November 13, 1941 sunk by a torpedo from the German submarine U81, from Gibraltar. Designed in 1934 at the Washington Naval Treaty of limitations to apply, Ark Royal was built by Cammell Laird and Company, Ltd. in Birkenhead, England, and completed in November 1938. Her design differed from the previous aircraft carriers. Ark Royal was the first ship on which the hangars and the cockpit was an integral part of the hull, instead of an add-on or a part of the superstructure. Designed for a large number of aircraft to bear, she had two hangar deck levels. She served in a period that first saw the extensive use of sea-air power, a number of carrier tactics were developed and refined aboard Ark Royal.

Ark Royal served in some of the most active naval theaters of World War II. She was involved in the first antenna and U-boat kill of the war, operations in Norway, the search for the German battleship Bismarck, and the Malta convoys. Ark Royal survived several near-misses and a reputation as a "happy ship". The Germans incorrectly reported her as sunk on several occasions.

She was torpedoed on 13 November 1941 by the German submarine U-81 and sank the next day. Her sinking was the subject of several studies, researchers were keen to know how the driver was lost, despite attempts to save the ship and drag it to the naval base in Gibraltar. They found that a number of design flaws contributed to the loss that was corrected in the new British carriers.
Her wreck was discovered by a BBC team in December 2002, approximately 30 NMI (35 miles, 56 km) from Gibraltar. In 1923, the Admiralty prepared a 10-year building program that an aircraft carrier and 300 aircraft for the Fleet Air Arm included. The economic downturn after the First World War has caused to be postponed. In 1930, the Director of Naval Construction, Sir Arthur Johns, began plans to update the carrier by incorporating newly developed technology. His goal was to reduce the number of aircraft by shortening the landing and takeoff of aircraft to increase distances by using compressed steam catapults and arrestor gear, respectively, which would be more deck space for aircraft storage and preparation. Along with the addition of two hangar decks, this may Ark Royal up to 72 aircraft, although the development of larger and heavier aircraft during the construction of the carrier meant that the actual number was performed between 50 and 60. The hangar decks were placed in the hull, so take advantage of the protection of 4.5 in (11.4 cm) belt harness. Three elevators move aircraft between the hangars and flight deck.
Another feature is the length and height of the cockpit. At 800 feet (240 m), the cockpit was 118 ft (36 m) longer than the keel, the latter determined by the length of the Royal Navy docks in Gibraltar and Malta. Because hangar decks were within the fuselage, the cockpit increased to 66 ft (20 m) above the waterline.

Washington and London Naval Treaty, which restricted warship tonnage for some of the great powers had expired at the end of 1936. [A] With a potential naval arms race developed between Great Britain, Japan and Italy, the UK government sought one second treaty, subject to the limit of the maximum displacement of an aircraft carrier to 22,000 tons of long (22,000 t). Ark Royal would have expected the limit is not exceeded, to save weight, armor plating was limited to the belt, engine, and magazines, while the welding instead of riveting 65% of the hull saved 500 long tons (510 tons) . The installation of an armored cockpit was not possible, since the weight would have placed Ark Royal above the proposed limit, while reducing its stability and endurance. The vessel is designed with a triple-Side Protection System using a vacuum-liquid-void system is very similar to those used on the King George V class battleships, and is designed to withstand the torpedoes to protect up to a £ 750 (340 kg) warhead.
The ship was equipped with six boilers, three Parsons turbines driven focus. The turbines were connected via three driveshafts to three bronze propellers, 16 ft (4.9 m) in diameter, with a maximum theoretical speed of 30 knots to produce (35 mph, 56 km / h). Speed ​​was important, because with catapults and arrestor gear, Ark Royal should change in the wind to launch and recover aircraft. To avoid endangering other vessels with frequent price changes associated with flight operations, Ark Royal would have to break with its vessels, and catch up on completion. Moreover, because the carrier was not equipped for ship-to-ship, the speed was its main protection against enemy warships.

The deteriorating international situation in 1933, marked by rearmament of Germany and the expansion of Japan and Italy, convinced the British to raise funds for the construction of the carrier to announce the 1934 budget proposals. Plans completed in November 1934, and were presented in February 1935 to Cammell Laird and Company, Ltd., the cost of the hull calculated on £ 1,496,250 (£ 77 million from 2011), and the main machinery at about £ 500,000 . (25.7 million pounds from 2011), the total cost was estimated at over £ 3 million, making Ark Royal the most expensive ship commissioned by the Royal Navy. Construction began on Job No. 1012 when Ark Royal keel was laid on September 16, 1935.

Ark Royal spent nearly two years in the garden of the builder before they launched on April 13, 1937 by Lady Maud Hoare, wife of Sir Samuel Hoare, then First Lord of the Admiralty. The bottle of champagne thrown against Ark Royal arches not break until the fourth attempt. The carrier spent one year the facility was transferred to its first commander, Captain Arthur Power, on November 16, 1938, and was on December 16. Although intended for the Far East, events in Europe during the construction of the carrier, including the Italian invasion of Abyssinia in 1935 and the Spanish Civil War in 1936, caused the Admiralty to highlight its deployment with the Home and Mediterranean Fleets. After her crew arrived at the end of 1938, Ark Royal underwent test runs to prepare for service where the carrier has been able to sailing above her theoretical speed to over 31 knots (36 mph, 57 km / h).

Ark Royal armor was designed with anti-aircraft warfare in mind, as planes were expected to be the greatest threat, ships and submarines to evade or be handled by supervisors. Her main armament was sixteen quick-firing 4.5 in (110 mm) dual purpose guns in eight double turrets, four on each side of the trunk, run by four directors with the High Angle Control System. The original design placed the turrets low on the fuselage, but was later adapted to find it just below the cockpit, each turret field of fire increased. Six 8-barreled 2-pounder (40 mm (1.57 in)) "pom-pom" guns were in the cockpit, front and behind the superstructure island, with eight 4-barreled .50 in (12.7 mm) machine guns were installed on small projecting platforms to the front and rear of the cockpit.

Sixteen Fleet Air Arm squadrons were posted aboard Ark Royal during her career, an average of five squadrons at any time. On entering service, most of the Ark Royal squadrons equipped with the Blackburn Hunters used as fighters and dive bombers, or Fairey Swordfish, for reconnaissance and torpedo bombing. From April 1940 squadrons equipped with Hunters upgraded to Fairey Fulmars, like their predecessors, were used as fighters and bombers. On occasion, the carrier operated Blackburn Roc fighter-bombers (from April 1939-October 1940) and Fairey Albacore torpedo bombers (October 1941), which were replacement aircraft used to give a boost squadron. In June 1940, Ark Royal was host to 701 Naval Air Squadron, a training squadron which operated Supermarine Walrus reconnaissance amphibians